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Cooking Classes In New Zealand





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Kea dawn raid - Kea - Nestor notabilis




Kea dawn raid - Kea - Nestor notabilis





Kea (the world's only alpine parrot) raided our camp early one morning bent on theivery and mischief. But wonderful to see them.

•Kea - a species of parrot (family Strigopidae) found in forested and alpine regions of the South Island of New Zealand. The Kea is one of the few alpine parrots in the world.. Now regarded as threatened. The Kea was once killed for bounty as it preyed on livestock, especially sheep. It only received full protection in 1986. Kea nest in burrows or crevices among the roots of trees. They are regarded as one of the most intelligent birds in the world, and for their insatiable curiosity, both vital to their survival in a harsh mountain environment. Kea can solve logical puzzles, such as pushing and pulling things in a certain order to get to food, and will work together to achieve a certain objective. The Kea is a large parrot about 48 cm (19 in) long and weighing about 1 kg (2.2 lb). It has mostly olive-green plumage with a grey beak having a long narrow curved upper beak. The adult has dark-brown irises, and the cere, eyerings, and legs are grey. It has orange feathers on the undersides of its wings. The feathers on the sides of its face are dark olive-brown, feathers on its back and rump are orange-red, and some of the outer wing feathers are dull-blue. It has a short and broad bluish-green tail with a black tip. Feather shafts project at the tip of the tail and the undersides of the inner tail feathers have yellow-orange transverse stripes. The male is about 5% longer than the female, and the male's upper beak is 12–14% longer than the female's. Juveniles generally resemble adults, but have yellow eyerings and cere, an orange-yellow lower beak, and grey-yellow legs. Kea range from lowland river valleys and coastal forests of the westcoast up to the alpine regions of the South Island such as Arthur's Pass and Aoraki/Mount Cook National Park, closely associated throughout its range with the southern beech (Nothofagus) forests in the alpine ridge. Apart from occasional vagrants, Kea are not found in the North Island, although fossil evidence suggests a population lived there over 10,000 years ago. The population was estimated at between 1,000 and 5,000 individuals in 1986, contrasting with another estimate of 15,000 birds in 1992. Both estimates depend heavily upon the assumptions made. The Kea's widespread distribution at low density across inaccessible areas prevents accurate estimates. Their notorious urge to explore and manipulate, combined with strong neophilia, makes this bird a pest for residents and an attraction for tourists. Called "the clown of the mountains", it will investigate backpacks, boots or even cars, often causing damage or flying off with smaller items. People commonly encounter wild Kea at South Island ski areas. The Kea are attracted by the prospect of food scraps. Their curiosity leads them to peck and carry away unguarded items of clothing or to pry apart rubber parts of cars—to the entertainment and annoyance of human observers. They are often described as "cheeky". A Kea has even been reported to have made off with a Scottish man's passport while he was visiting Fiordland Mortality is high among young Kea, with less than 40% surviving their first year.[22] The median lifespan of a wild subadult Kea has been estimated at 5 years, based on the proportion of Kea seen again in successive seasons in Arthur's Pass, and allowing for some emigration to surrounding areas. Around 10% of the local Kea population were expected to be over 20 years of age. The oldest known captive Kea was 50 years old in 2008. At least one observer has reported that the Kea is polygynous, with one male attached to multiple females. The same source noted that there was a surplus of females. Kea are social and live in groups of up to 13 birds. Isolated individuals do badly in captivity but respond well to mirror images. In one study, nest sites occur at a density of 1 per 4.4 km?. The breeding areas are most commonly in Southern Beech (Nothofagus) forests, located on steep mountain sides. Breeding at heights of 1600 m above sea level and higher, it is one of the few parrot species in the world to regularly spend time above tree line. Nest sites are usually positioned on the ground underneath large beech trees, in rock crevices or dug burrows between roots. They are accessed by tunnels leading back 1 m to 6 m into a larger chamber, which is furnished with lichens, moss, ferns and rotting wood. The laying period starts in July and reaches into January. Two to five white eggs are laid, with an incubation time of around 21 days, and a brooding period of 94 days. An omnivore, the Kea feeds on more than 40 plant species beetle larva, other birds (including shearwater chicks) and mammals (including sheep and rabbits). It has been observed breaking open shearwater nests to feed on the chicks after hearing the chicks in their nests. The Kea is classed as Nationally Endange











page 2 & 3




page 2 & 3





meat rationing has come in, the New Zealand Health Department days that the glutelin of wheat and the legumin of peas, beans and lentils have been proved to be first-class proteins, which is a "volte face" from their former teachings.
4. Mineral Salts - Many types of mineral salts exist and they are widely distributed in foods, but are present in such minute quantities that they are known as "the trace elements." Their functions are very numerous, in spite of their very low percentage in foods. The most important of these are:
(a) Building of bones and teeth.
(b) Maintenance of muscle tone.
(c) Regulation of heart beats.
(d) Formation of digestive juices.
(e) Prevention of specific diseases such as anaemia (lack of iron salts), goitre (lack of iodine salts), rickets (lack of calcium, phosphorus and/or Vitamin D), Haemophilia - continuous bleeding (lack of calcium and Vitamin K).
5. Vitamins - The function of each of the many vitamins is now fairly well understood, but this summary is too short to tell of each specifically. Suffice it to say that they are all necessary for the maintenance of good health and to enable the body to use the other food principles. The root of this word is the Latin word "vita," meaning life. Vitamins govern all those functions which show that we are alive.
These are:
(a) The digestion and absorption and elimination of foods.
(b) Appetite.
(c) Growth.
(d) Resistance to diseases.
(e) Functioning of the brain.
(f) Nerve reactions.
(g) Reproduction.
(h) Healing of wounds. (i) Muscle tone, etc.
6. Water - From 6-8 cups of water are required daily for the formation of every one of the 300 billion cells which form the body, and to make it possible for each cell to absorb the nourishment it requires from the bloodstream and to give back to the bloodstream the waste products of its individual living. Also for the elimination of waste from the body as a whole. It does this by dissolving the waste products and giving them off:
(a) As breath from the lungs.
(b) As perspiration from the pores of the skin.
(c) As urine from kidneys and bladder.

And it softens the solid waste in the bowels, thus making bowel movements easy and regular. Some of this water is supplied in every food eaten, but much extra is needed to maintain internal cleanliness.
7. Cellulose - This is the framework of all plant tissues and is not dissolved by our digestive juices. Its function is to form bulk in the narrow digestive tube called the small intestine. Here its presence stimulates the peristaltic action of the intestine and so causes the food to mix well with the digestive juices and to move along its appointed track. It helps the bowels to eliminate the waste food. From the cellulose, silican salts are absorbed into the bloodstream and these help in the absorption of carbon-dioxide - the waste gas produced in each living cell - and enable the blood to carry it to the lungs, whence it is expelled as breath.
THE CHANGE FROM MEAT EATING TO A MEAT-FREE DIETARY
Having gained an elementary knowledge of the food principles and their functions, let us pass on to our second point, which is to understand what it is that we are doing when we decide to become vegetarian.
In its usual meaning, this term denotes one who eats neither meat nor fish. I am not dealing here with those who eschew all animal foods, but with those who are desirous of eliminating meat and fish from their diets.
COMMON SYMPTOMS OF ILL-HEALTH IN VEGETARIANS
Let us first look at this subject with the eyes of those who do not approve of a meat-free dietary, and ask ourselves why so many doctors disapprove of vegetarianism.
The symptoms most commonly met with are:
1. Anaemia - This is not due to the fact that the person is a vegetarian, but has come about because the diet is unbalanced in many ways. It lacks sufficient iron salts, copper salts, phosphate salts and Vitamins B and C. Red meat and liver are good sources of iron, but so are green vegetables and dried fruits, particularly apricots and raisins, the legumes and some nuts. These vegetable products are good sources also of copper and the B and C vitamins.
2. Halitosis - This is unpleasant breath, mostly due to lack of Vitamin C. This vitamin is destroyed largely in cooking and is soluble in water, so is lost unless the vegetable water is all used up in soups, sauces, gravy or in "vegetable cocktails." A good-sized sprig of parsley, eaten off the stalk, is a quick cure for this unpleasant condition.
3. General flabbiness and a feeling of weariness after only slight exertion - This is due to an unbalanced diet, one in which devitalised foods form the basis. It is common in all so-called "civilised" diets because of several factors. Among these are;









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